Sophie Mitra, visiting CPRC in Spring 2014, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Economics at Fordham University. Her research is in applied microeconomics, with a focus on development, disability and poverty issues.
Sophie Mitra is currently doing research in four primary areas. The first area relates to economic wellbeing and disability, primarily in low- and middle-income countries. Is disability associated with poverty? What are the economic determinants and consequences of disability? A second area is the measure of multidimensional poverty in the U.S. for the general population and for specific groups (persons with disabilities, persons with sever mental illness). A question of interest is whether historial trends and patterns of poverty for specific demographic groups (e.g. the elderly) are different with a multidimensional poverty measure compared to the official income measure. A third area of interest deals with the evaluation of cash transfer and health insurance programs, in Vietnam in particular. A fourth area of study is the economic impact of mental health problems in the U.S. and in low- and middle-income countries.
Sophie Mitra's international work currently includes projects in Haiti, India, Mexico, South Africa and Vietnam. She has been published in many peer-reviewed journals including the American Economic Review, World Development, Lancet Global Health, Applied Economics Letters, Social Science Quarterly, Social Indicators Research. Selected research papers can be found at: http://ssrn.com/author=552378.
Sophie Mitra earned an MA in development economics and a doctorate in economics from the University of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbornne in France. Before doing her doctorate, she was development practitioner and worked for the Overseas Development Institute (ODI, London) as an overseas fellow in Fiji. Her CV can be found here.
MARY CLARE LENNON
Mary Clare Lennon is professor at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY) in the PhD Program in Sociology and DPH Program in Public Health. Since 2010 she has been a Visiting Fellow, Department of Quantitative Social Science, Institute of Education, University of London Her recent research (funded by NICHD) focuses on residential mobility and neighborhood change among young children and uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. She is also collaborating with Heather Joshi of the Center for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London, and Ruth Lupton of the London School of Economics, on a comparative study of childhood residential mobility in the US and UK, using Fragile Families and the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). Funding for this collaboration has been received from the ESRC. As part of this project, MCS data will be geocoded and comparable indicators of neighborhood disadvantage will be developed for the US and the UK. The primary goal is to understand factors associated with residential moves and neighborhood change in each country and to track the role of changes in housing and social policies over the period of study. While in residence at CPRC, Mary Clare will be working on this comparative project.
Mary Clare has also studied patterns of change over time in childhood poverty (with Bob Wagmiller) and homelessness (with Bill McAllister), using mixture models and sequence analysis. This work was funded by NIMH and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Investigator Award in Health Policy (with Larry Aber). She has edited two books, one on implementation research methods (with Tom Corbett) and the second on women’s well-being in the era of welfare reform. She has published in various journals, including the American Sociological Review, Social Services Review, the American Journal of Public Health, the American Journal of Sociology and the Journal of Health and Social Behavior. University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. He earned his B.A. at Columbia and Ph.D. at the University of Rochester. He is the author of two books, Sixty Million Acres: American Veterans and the Public Lands before the Civil War (1990) and A Nation of Statesmen: The Political Culture of the Stockbridge-Munsee Mohicans, 1815-1972 (2005), and co-author of The Transatlantic Migration Experience: From Austria-Hungary to the United States, 1870-1940, with Annemarie Steidl and Wladimir Fischer (forthcoming 2013). Her CV can be found here.
James W. Oberly is professor of History at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. He earned his B.A. at Columbia and Ph.D. at the University of Rochester. He is the author of two books, Sixty Million Acres: American Veterans and the Public Lands before the Civil War (1990) and A Nation of Statesmen: The Political Culture of the Stockbridge-Munsee Mohicans, 1815-1972 (2005), and co-author of The Transatlantic Migration Experience: From Austria-Hungary to the United States, 1870-1940, with Annemarie Steidl and Wladimir Fischer (forthcoming 2013).
While in residence at CPRC, Jim is working on replicating a study completed in 1919 by a young Hungarian immigrant social worker, Julius Drachsler, who studied New York City marriages across national, religious, and racial boundaries. For his doctoral dissertation at Columbia, Drachsler reported that he had examined 171,000 marriage licenses of couples who wed in Manhattan or the Bronx during the five calendar years 1908-1912. Drachsler concluded that intermarriage was rare among first generation immigrants, but that one-third of the second generation children of immigrants intermarried, and by the third generation, intermarriage was the norm. Sociologists and historical demographers have been citing Drachsler’s 1921 published work, Intermarriage in New York, since its completion. However, his study notes on the 171,000 marriages did not survive his untimely death in 1927. Jim has drawn a 1 percent sample of the same 171,000 marriages from 1908-1912 in an effort to replicate Drachsler’s Intermarriage in New York. His CV can be found here.
Irene Lapuerta is an assistant professor in the Department of Social Work at Universidad Pública de Navarra and PhD candidate in Political and Social Sciences at Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Her dissertation, entitled “Employment, motherhood and parental leaves in Spain”, analyses the effectiveness of the Spanish Parental Leave System to promote gender equality and work-family balance. Her research focuses on two main areas. Firstly, she is interested in the determinants of use and duration of parental leave benefits and, in particular, part-time parental leave (also known as ‘reduced working hours’ or ‘flexible parental leave’). This type of leave has been less explored in the literature and has not been distinguished from part-time work, despite cross-country comparisons show huge differences in the regulation and employment protection of both labour statuses. Secondly, during her stay at Columbia and in collaboration with Dr. Waldfogel, she is analysing the effects of using both types of leaves (full- and part-time parental leaves) on mothers’ occupational mobility and wages.
She is also participating in the Spanish team of the “International & National studies of the transitions to parenthood” (TransPARENT project), financed by several European and National Institutions, including the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology. This project explores how different institutional and cultural settings affect and frame the couple’s decision processes about the division of work as they become first-time parents and what consequences these decisions have for their subsequent careers.
DHAVAL M. DAVE
Dhaval Dave is an Associate Professor of Economics at Bentley University in Massachusetts, and a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He was also a John M. Olin Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, after completing his Ph.D. from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. His research broadly focuses on the analysis of health and social policy, and on the determinants of health and human capital.
Dr. Dave is currently working on research in five primary areas. The first relates to the economics of substance abuse, and includes projects that are investigating: the demand for smokeless tobacco use with special emphasis on shifting trends in user demographics and the role of advertising and taxes; and the effectiveness of alcohol control policy through the application of a neuro-economic framework of decision-making. The second area of research is examining the effects of the business cycle, and specifically the Great Recession, on individuals’ health behaviors including eating habits, exercise, and physical activity. The third area relates to the study of the Medicaid eligibility expansions for pregnant women and children, which unfolded between 1985-1996, and assesses their effects on pregnant women’s labor supply and their prenatal health investments. The fourth area of research considers the secondary consequences of welfare reform in the U.S., examining outcomes that it was not intended to affect such as women’s formal and informal educational acquisition, substance use, and crime. The fifth area of work is studying the causal impact of juvenile incarceration versus community alternatives on outcomes relating to recidivism and schooling, utilizing information on the criminal history and educational records of juvenile offenders in Washington state.
Dr. Dave has published in leading peer-reviewed journals including Journal of Health Economics, Journal of Urban Economics, Health Economics, and Economic Inquiry, and his research has also been featured in various popular media including the Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, New York Times, U.S. News and World Report, TIME Magazine, and television and radio networks.
Armelle Andro is an Assistant Professor at Panthéon-Sorbonne University in Paris, France. In addition to her professorship of demography at the Paris Demography Institute (IDUP), she is a fellow researcher at INED (Institut national des études démographiques) where she is the co-director of the research unit “Gender, Demography and Society” . She has published in Population, Sociétés Contemporaines, Nouvelles Questions féministes, Aids among others.
She has recently participated in the survey on the Context of Sexuality in France (CSF), and she is now the Principal Investigator of the ExH (Excision et Handicap) project on FGM and Disability. This project is the first national survey ever implemented in France on migrant women from Sub-Saharan Africa who were exposed to FGM. This case-control study aims at identifying the risks attached to the excision on gynecologic and sexual health. The fieldwork has been conducted in 2008-2009 and 2882 women were interviewed, of which 700 were excised. As a follow up to the survey, she is now studying the life trajectories of women who have experienced female genital cutting in relation to disability, notably those with an impact on maternal mortality and perinatal health. The findings of this study break new ground by addressing the question of genital mutilation in relation to disability (impairments, functional limitations, restrictions of activity). It may allow the implementation of a more relevant typology of FGM consequences, which takes into account women’s living environment and particularly the gaps in healthcare services in various national contexts. Against this background she is particularly focusing on reconstructive surgery of excision and clitoris that has been implemented since a decade in France.
During her time at Columbia, Dr Andro will be working on the consequences of Female Genital Mutilation on women’s sexual and reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa and countries of migration. Regarding the topic of women’s reproductive health in Sub-saharian Africa, she is working in collaboration with Stéphane Helleringer on the comparison of prospective and retrospective methods to measure maternal mortality in African countries in a context of high female genital cutting prevalence. The second objective is to set a program of activity on female genital cutting and especially to analyze retrospectively the innovative and complex methodology for collecting data on sensitive topics dealing with intimacy and experience of trauma and to analyse consequences of FGM on maternal and perinatal health in France compared to the Sub-saharian context.
DAVID L. KIRP
David L. Kirp, professor of public policy at the University of California at Berkeley, is a former newspaper editor and policy consultant as well as an academic. His interests range widely across policy and politics. In his fifteen books and scores of articles in both the popular press and scholarly journals he has tackled some America’s biggest social problems. His involvement with government agencies and foundations, as well as his teaching and his community activism, address these issues at ground level. Between the 2008 election and the Inauguration, he served on President Obama’s Transition Team.
From the beginning of his career, as a professor at Harvard Graduate School of Education, children’s issues have been his passion. His most recent book, The Sandbox Investment: The Preschool Movement and Kids-First Politics (Harvard 2007) emerged from his having spent several years crisscrossing the country, crouching in pre-k classrooms and nurseries across the country and talking with experts in the field—a MacArthur “genius award” teacher and a Nobel Prize-winning economist, cutting-edge neuroscientists and progressive politicians. Excerpts appeared in leading newspapers and magazines including the New York Times Sunday Magazine and the Chicago Tribune Sunday Magazine; opinion pieces ran in the Los Angeles Times and the San Francisco Chronicle. The book was chosen as a San Francisco Chronicle 2007 “best book” and received the Association of American Publishers Award for Excellence.
Since The Sandbox Investment was published, he has appeared on numerous TV and radio and shows, including ABC “World News Tonight,” NPR “Weekend Edition” and CNN “American Morning.” From North Carolina to California, Arizona to Mississippi, he given keynote talks to “children’s summits” attended by politicians, advocates, practitioners and business leaders. He spoke at the 2008 National Conference of State Legislatures, the Education Writers of America, the California Head Start Association, the national conference of Smart Start and the international conference of High/Scope. He has lectured at leading universities in the U.S. and abroad, including Harvard, Princeton and Chicago, and addressed the Google Forum (that event is posted on YouTube), donating a portion of his royalties to underwrite preschool scholarships for poor children.
His forthcoming book, Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise: Five Big Ideas for Transforming the Lives of Children (Public Affairs 2011) expands on his earlier work by looking at promising policy innovations that span the first generation of children’s lives. Excerpts from the book will appear in The American Prospect and The Nation.
Over the span of several decades David Kirp has been involved with education, from crib to college, racial discrimination, gender justice, affordable housing, AIDS and civil liberties. His books have been translated into many languages, including Chinese (modern and classic), Japanese, Korean and Ukranian. He writes for such publications as the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The American Prospect and The Nation. His forthcoming article in National Affairs, “Invisible Students: Bridging the Widest Achievement Gap,” reviews promising strategies to improve educational opportunities for African-American male youth.
As acting dean of the Goldman School in the late 1990s, and earlier as a trustee of Amherst College, he came to appreciate first-hand how colleges and universities are being managed. Shakespeare, Einstein, and the Bottom Line: The Marketing of Higher Education (Harvard 2005) offers an engrossing account of the power of market forces to shape American universities, molding the research agenda and increasing the barriers to access for students from poor families. The book received the 2005 best book award from the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education.
Long committed to developing a new generation of public leaders, he is a recipient of Berkeley’s Distinguished Teaching Award. Twice he was honored with the Gustavus Meyers Human Rights Award, for Learning by Heart: AIDS and America’s Communities and Our Town: Race, Housing and the Soul of Suburbia. He has lectured at universities across the globe, among them Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Brown, NYU, Princeton, Chicago, UC-San Diego, Rutgers, Glasgow, Ben Gurion, Wellington, Melbourne, Trento, ITAM and McGill.
He is a graduate of Amherst College and Harvard Law School. Before coming to Berkeley, he taught at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and was the founding director of the Harvard Center on Law and Education, a national law reform center. There, he participated in landmark litigation that expanded the rights of poor and minority students, English language learners and special needs children to an equal educational opportunity. From 1983 to 1985 he was an associate editor of the Sacramento Bee, and later wrote a syndicated newspaper column. He has consulted with public agencies at all levels of government, international and domestic, as well as with foundations and nonprofit organizations, among them the U.S. Department of Education, the New Zealand Ministry of Education, the California Department of Education, the Victoria (Australia) Premier’s Department, the California Public Utilities Commission and the Hewlett and Packard foundations. He blogs on education policy issues for The National Journal.
His interest in social justice is reflected in a longstanding involvement with many nonprofit organizations. Currently he is a member of the board of Senior Corps, which sends adult volunteers to tutor elementary school students; Friends of the Children, which provides twelve years of mentoring to children who are ; and likely candidates for school failure; and the Coro Leadership Center, which trains future leaders. At the Goldman School of Public Policy at Berkeley, he launched the New Community Fund at the Goldman School of Public Policy in order to promote greater student diversity, and has also underwritten a named scholarship.
CPRC's Fall 2009 Visiting Scholar, Naomi Eisenstadt CB, has been engaged in evidence-based policy making in the UK for nearly ten years. She was the first director of Sure Start, the UK Government’s program to bring together early education, childcare, health and family support to afford every child the best start in life. Eisenstadt was responsible for Sure Start as it grew from a time-limited area based initiative into a mainstream program incorporating all British policy on early years, childcare, out of school programs and parenting. More recently, she took on the post of Director of the Social Exclusion Task Force at the Cabinet Office, working on cross-government policy concerned with deep disadvantage and the complexities of working with individuals and families whose lives are characterized by multiple and inter-generational difficulties. She was designated a Companion of the Bath, a Crown Honour reserved for selected civil servants and high ranking military. While at CPRC, Eisenstadt will reflect and write about evidence-based policy making, how researchers can translate their results into useful findings for policy makers, and also lessons for social work practice from her experience in Sure Start and the Social Exclusion Taskforce. She is particularly interested in the challenges of inter-agency working at all levels: from getting different government departments to work together, right down to service integration at the front line.
Qin Gao, also visiting CPRC in Fall 2009, is an Assistant Professor at Fordham University Graduate School of Social Service. Dr. Gao’s research focuses on the structures, trends, and impacts of social welfare policies, particularly those affecting low-income families. Specifically, Dr. Gao has engaged in research in four primary areas: 1) the Chinese social benefit system in transition and its impact on poverty, inequality, and family well-being; 2) child and family policies in the US, particularly effects of the 1996 welfare reform and other related policies on the economic well-being of low-income families; 3) cross-national comparative social policy analysis; and 4) child maltreatment and child welfare among Asian Americans.
While a visitor at CPRC, Dr. Gao will be working on two projects, both in collaboration with Dr. Irv Garfinkel. The first project examines the changing roles of market income, social benefits, and private transfers in affecting poverty—especially persistent poverty—in urban China using national household data in 1988, 1995, and 2002. The second project compares the sizes, structures, and progressivity of the social benefit systems in China and Vietnam and examines their impacts on income inequality using the China Household Income Project data and the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey data. This project is supported by a grant from the Global Public Policy Network.
Dr. Gao has published in the China Quarterly, Journal of Asian Public Policy, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Review of Income and Wealth, and Social Service Review, among others. Her work has been supported by the Chiang Ching-Kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange, the Fahs-Beck Fund for Research and Experimentation, the Lois and Samuel Silberman Fund, and the University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research, among others.
2008 - 2009
The 2008-2009 CPRC Visiting Scholar, Libertad González, is an Assistant Professor at Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona, Spain. Dr. González earned her Ph.D. in economics from Northwestern University. In addition to her professorship at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, she is a Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn, Germany, and at the Center for Research and Analysis of Migration (CreAM) at University College London (UCL). She has published in the Journal of Applied Econometrics, Labour Economics, and the European Economic Review, among others.
During her time at Columbia, Dr. González will be working on several projects. Her main research interests lie in the field of labor economics, more specifically on issues related to family and migration. In the area of family economics, her research agenda involves analyzing the effects of institutions governing family dissolution, in particular, divorce, from a cross-country perspective. One of her current projects (with Tarja Viitanen; University of Sheffield) involves analyzing the long-term effects of the legalization of divorce, on children.
The analysis will exploit the variation, across European countries, in the timing of the legalization of divorce. On a related project (with Berkay Özcan; Yale University), she is interested in the effect of the increasing risk of divorce on the saving behaviour of married couples. This project will exploit the recent legalization of divorce in Ireland as the source of an exogenous increase in the risk of divorce.
Regarding the topic of migration, Dr. González is interested in the labor market effects of migration inflows; in a project with Francesc Ortega (Universitat Pompeu Fabra) she is using the data on the large migration inflows into Spain that took place during the past few years to analyze its effects on regional economies (employment, wages, industry composition, and factor intensities).
González was particularly attracted to the CPRC by its interdisciplinary focus and the close overlap of some of its research foci with her interests in Children, Youth, and Families and Immigration/Migration.